Age, gender, and race are some of the factors that indicate the demographics of hemorrhagic stroke patients in the US.
- Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) increases with age, where people above the age of 35, for every 10 years, risk having ICH chances doubled. Cerebral amyloid contributes to primary lobar hemorrhages, especially among the elderly. However, younger patients are also at risk of developing lobar hemorrhages, although in such cases, there are usually other underlying lesions such as cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM).
- Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), on the other hand, seems to affect the younger generation below age 35. Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) related incidences tend to increase with age and mostly affect adults over 50 years.
- Studies indicate that women are more likely to suffer from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) compared to men. According to scientists, an estimate of over 6 million people in the US has an unruptured aneurysm in the brain. Out of this number, nearly 30,000 of them rupture each year. Roughly 40 patients out of each hundred ruptures die. More so, women are more likely to suffer from aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) by about 60%, especially women in their postmenopausal age group. The risk is estimated to be more than twice as high. Experts link these statistics to sex hormones involved in the formation of aneurysms. More debates provide that women are likely to be protected against aneurysms in their reproductive or younger years. However, the incidence seems to rise exponentially after menopause.
- Unlike other types of hemorrhagic stroke, SAH is more prevalent in women than in men. The mortality rate is also higher among women than men, as women are likely to have multiple aneurysms. Reports indicate that the mean diameter of unruptured cerebral aneurysms (UCA) and the loss of estrogen in a woman’s life are factors that see women at a higher risk of hemorrhagic stroke in women than men, especially after women get to menopause.
- While SAH cases are estimated to be 10 to 15 cases per 100,000 population in the US, intracerebral is said to be highest among Asian Americans, followed by Blacks and lowest in whites. In Blacks, hemorrhagic stroke affects 48 patients per 100,000 population and is higher among Mexican Americans than non-Hispanic whites. Subarachnoid hemorrhage, on the other hand, affects more Blacks than any other race in the US. The aSAH incidence is also higher among Blacks and Hispanics than white Americans.
- A hemorrhagic stroke takes up only 10 to 15 percent of all known strokes. However, it is the deadliest and most dangerous kind of stroke. Once people have had a hemorrhagic stroke, they are often at risk of having a recurring and most likely fatal stroke. Black and Hispanic populations are at a higher risk of hemorrhagic stroke, particularly intracerebral, than white Americans. “Previous studies have shown that black and Hispanic people are at greater risk of having a first bleeding stroke,” said study author Alessandro Biffi, MD, of Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston and a member of the American Academy of Neurology.
Health History, Challenges, and Needs of Hemorrhagic Stroke Patients in the US
More scholarly literature and reliable sources indicate that factors such as health history, challenges, and needs have continued to play an instrumental role in hemorrhagic stroke patients in the US.
- Epidemiologic studies show that nearly 87% of strokes in the United States are ischemic, 10% are secondary to intracerebral hemorrhage, and another 3% may be categorized as either secondary or subarachnoid hemorrhage. According to a 2010 retrospective review carried out in a stroke center, 40.9% of the 757 patients involved in the study had suffered hemorrhagic strokes.
- There are two most widespread causes of hemorrhagic stroke or ruptured blood vessels in the brain; aneurysm and arteriovenous malformation (AVM). In the former case, it occurs when a patient has a history of enlarged blood vessels, often caused by a history of chronic and dangerously high levels of blood pressure. In some instances, it is caused by a weak blood vessel wall that is often congenital—the ballooning results in the thinning of the vessel wall, leading to a rupture. On the other hand, AVM occurs when a patient has a history of abnormally connected arteries and veins without capillaries in between. AVMs are congenital, as they are present at birth, even though they are not hereditary.
- Hemorrhagic stroke is prevalent among older people, mostly from age 55 and above. Other than vessel abnormality and high blood pressure, other known causes of this stroke include a family history of stroke, sleep apnea, smoking, drug abuse, particularly cocaine and alcohol use. Blood disorders or medications can also increase a patient’s risk of a hemorrhagic stroke.
- Hemorrhagic stroke treatment is challenging and demanding as it incorporates various approaches such as medical treatment, decompressive craniotomy, surgical treatment, aneurysm treatment, and arteriovenous treatment. All these treatments are dependent on the complication of the stroke. Nutrition is one of the most significant needs of a stroke patient. Often, stroke patients have difficulty consuming adequate calories and could lead to patients becoming underweight or malnourished. Malnutrition can interfere with a patient’s ability to fully recover from a stroke and increase the risk of long-term disability. Often, caregivers or medical practitioners evaluate a patient’s diet before discharging them from the hospital by reviewing the patient’s past and current body mass overall eating habit patterns, blood testing, and physical examination of the eyes, skin, mouth, and muscles.
- Accessing the right medical treatment and proper care are some of the primary needs to save lives and provide a quality life for hemorrhagic stroke patients. However, these can prove to be expensive and financially strenuous for an average family in the US. Finances pose one of the most significant challenges for stroke patients in the US, especially for Americans that do not have medical insurance. Hemorrhagic stroke patients need various forms such as treatment, proper nutrition, inpatient care, rehabilitation, and outpatient care. The lifetime cost for a stroke, for instance, is estimated to be $140,481. The price caters to inpatient care, rehabilitation, and follow-up care.
- Quick stroke treatment is a vital need for Americans that are prone to hemorrhagic stroke. Getting immediate medical attention can save lives and minimize extensive long-term effects that come with a stroke. Some of the popular treatments include an endovascular procedure that is used to remove the clot. However, this treatment requires patients to meet specific criteria to be eligible. Hemorrhagic stroke treatment procedures require tPA direct administration into the blood clot to dissolve the blockage as soon as possible.